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Sunday, 9 October 2016

Dr. Muhammad Iqbal

     Dr. Muhammad Iqbal is the greatest Muslim thinker and poet of this century. He was born at Sialkot on the 9th of November 1877. His ancestors had migrated from Kashmir some two hundred years before. His father, Sheikh Nur Muhammad was a mystic from whom Iqbal inherited mysticism and deep love for religion.
     He received his early education at a local high school and passed his Intermediate examination from Murrey College. He had the good fortune of studying Arabic, Persian and Islamiyat under the inspiring guidance of Syed Mir Hussain.
     He proceeded to Lahore for higher studies and joined the Government College. There he came under the influence of Dr. Arnold who inspired him to study philosophy. In 1899, he obtained his Master's degree in Philosophy and joined the teaching staff of the Government College.
     He went to Europe in 1905 for higher studies in Philosophy and Law. He obtained his Ph.D in Philosophy from Germany. He was called to Bar in 1908, and he returned to India the same year. His stay in Europe was a great importance. It influenced him in many ways. He came into contact with the contemporary philosophical and political thought, but the Western civilization and materialism found no favour with him.
     On his return, he started his legal practice, but his heart was not in it. Most of his time was devoted to poetry, philosophy and religion.
     He was an inspired and creative poet. He had already written some poems which had been favourably received by critics and readers alike. Now he began to write in both Persian and Urdu. He did not believe in art for art's sake. For him, poetry was only a medium for expressing his philosophical ideas, religious beliefs and political message.
     He published many volumes of poetry Bang-i-Dara., Bal-i-Jabril, Zarb-i-Kaleem, Asrar-i-Khudi, Ramooz-i-Bekhudi, Payam-i-Mashraq, Jawaid Nama and Zaboori-i-Ajam. All of these have become classics of literature. 
     He was deeply interested in religion. He delivered six lectures at Madras, which were later published under the title 'Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam.
     In 1930, Iqbal presided over the Allahabad Session of the All-India Muslim League, and delivered his famous presidential address in which he asserted that the only solution of the problems of the Indian Muslims was a separate Muslim state. This was the first demand for Pakistan. But he did not live to see the emergence of the new state. He died in 1938. It was nine year after his death that Pakistan was achieved. 
     Iqbal's genius was fully recognized by his nation in his lifetime. He was immensely popular among all sections of Muslims All sorts of people-politicians, mystics, journalists and students came to him for guidance and inspiration.

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