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Wednesday, 27 September 2017

History - Important Terms

     Ameer (Amir). The word was used for the ruler, leader of for a chief of a state as Amir Timur (1338-1405).
      Archives. It is for a place used for keeping state documents.
     Bastille: A fortress built in 1370-83 for the defence of Paris. Afterwards, it was used for the state prisoners.
     Black Death: Term used for the attack of plague in Europe in 1348 which swallowed almost one fourth of the population.
     Bolshevism: Word Bolshevism stand for the majority but term Bolshevism signifies party which came to power in Russia under Lenin after the revolution of 1917.
     Chronology: The science of time.
     Code of Napoleon: Code issued by Napoleon in 1804 stressing the right of property was basis of legal system in France.
     Cominterm (1919): Title of the third International. It was founded in Moscow on the initiative of the Russian Communist party in 1919 in order to rally all extreme left wing socialists and communists who disliked the moderating influence of the second International. for many year it encouraged revolution against capitalist governments. It was dissolved in May 1943. 
     Cominform 1947-56: It look over some of the functions of Comintern after its dissolution.
     Commonwealth: When there was no king in England during the period 1649-1660, government was known as Commonwealth.
     Concentration Comps: A place where usually war prisoners or political rebel are forcibly detained.
     Continental System: Blockade ordered by Napoleon Bonaparte under the Berlin Decree of November 21, 1806, aiming at closing the continental ports on British manufactures.
     Czar (Tzar): The title of Russian Emperor.
     Eskimos: Inhabitants of Greenland the Arctic regions of America who mainly live by hunting.
     Exodus: It is the name of the second book of the old testament which describes the history of Israelite's in Egypt.
     Fabian Society: Established in 1884 for propagating the socialism.
     Free lances: Mercenary troops who did not belong to any particular army. They could be hired by anybody for fighting. In the modern, the term is used for writers, leaders or journalists who do not believe in any particular ideology or who are not loyal with any group or party. 
     Fullahs: Sudanese Muslims who made conquests and founded Kingdom in Nigeria.
     Grand Mughals: Mughal emperors from Babur to Aurangzeb who ruled India from 1526 to 1707.
     Gunpowder Plot (1605): It was hatched by extremist Roman Catholic who disliked Kind James I of England. They hatched conspiracy to blow up the House of Commons with gunpowder when the Kind and his ministers were to meet there. Plot was discovered.
     Huguenots: Term Stands for French protestants of 16th century who made historic sacrifices for their faith.
     Ivan the Great: He founded the Monarchy of Russia in 1492.
     Jacob ins: A radical group among the French revolutionaries who played and important role during French revolution, 1789-94.
     Joan of Arc: Famous heroine. Maid of Orleans in France, who defeated English Forces and relieved the city, was burnt in May, 1431.
     Ku-Klux Khan: A terrorist society which works underground and aims at establishing the supremacy of the white over the Negroes in U.S.A Kind, a famous Negro leader of U.S.A was short by one of the members of this society.
     Kulturkampf (1871-1887): A term which signifies the sharp conflict and differences between Bismarck and the Roman Catholic Church.
     Kuomintang: A Chinese nationalist party founded in 1891 by Sun Yatsen. In 1948. It was replaced by the Communist Party.
     Legion: Military term of ancient Rome which stands for body of troops consisting of 3000 to 6000 soldiers.
     Legion of Honour: French award, instituted by Napoleon, for distinguished services in military or civil fields.
     Lollard: A school of thought which opposed decoration of churches. Founded by John Wyeliff, 1324-84.
      Long March: An historic march of Chinese Communist from Kiangsi to Yenan (8000 miles) under Mao Tse-tung, resulting into thousand deaths including Mao's first wife.
     Maginot Line: A defensive line consisting of forts constructed by France in 1924 on the eastern frontier opposite to Luxembourg Magyars. A Mongolian race, famous for physical strength settled in Hungary.
     Manchu Dynasty (1640-1911): The dynasty that ruled over China till 1911 when it was overthrown by the Nationalists.
     Manchuria: Part of north-east China, covering Heilungkiang, Liaoning and Kirin area 825,700 sq. Miles Due to exploitation of mineral resources, it has become China's most important area of industrial development.
     Mandates: Territories which were placed under the control of League of Nations as a result of First World War. Now known as trusteeship.
     March on Rome: Mussolini's famous blockade of Rome in October 1922 resulting into the fall of king. It led to the formation of Mussolini's Fascist Government in Italy.
     Maroons: Term stands for the runaway Negro slave in Jamaica and Guiana.
     Moors: The African Muslims who crossed into Spain under Tariq Bin Ziad and ruled there for centuries.
     Reformation: A movement started by Martin Luther for the reformation of church in Europe. this movement revolted against the old practices of Pope and disapproved the idea of selling indulgences.
     Renaissance: Revival of classical learning in Europe in the 14th and last century led to a widespread interest in art and literature.
     Satti: Hindu custom according to which the windows would burn themselves in fire along with their deceased husbands.
     Scotland Yard: The London Metropolitan police headquarters.
      Triple Entente: It refers to the collaboration among three countries namely Britain, France and Russia during the period 1907-17 otherwise the term means settlement of difference.
     Vandals: Ten tonic people responsible for the disruption of Roman Empire in the 5th century A.D.
     Yezhvoshehina: Great purge of anti dissident elements from the Communist Party of U.S.S.R in 1936.
     Young Truks: Movement started by the Young Turks for liberal reforms in the Ottoman Turkish Empire.
     Zionism: Movement started by Theodore Herze in 1860 for the rehabilitation of Jews in Palestine.
     Zorooster: Founder of the religion of the Parsees.



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