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Saturday, 28 October 2017

The Indus Plains

The Indus Plains form the western part o the Indo Gangetic Plain of the northern part of the sub-continent. To the south of the salt range begins vast plan that extends south to the shores of the Arabian Sea. This plain is irrigated by the Indus and its tributaries and is called Indus Plain. This plain is further divided into two parts.
a.       Upper Indus. Plain: This includes the .plains of Punjab, Bahawalpureand Khairpur Divisions. Roughly speaking, the area south of salt range and above Mithankot is called Upper Indus Plain. This area lies from two to three hundred metres . above the sea level and is one Df the most fertile areas of the world.
b.      The Lower Indus Plain: South of Mithankot, the Indus and its tributaries join to make a great river. Here it flows very slowly and the silt begins to settle along its course. Many dams/ barrages have been built to irrigate the land in this area. These have brought prosperity to the province of Sind. Yet greater Parts of the northwest and south — east of Sind are still a desert dotted with sand dunes. It may also be noted that on the West Bank of Indus and the Kirthar Hills lies to "Piedmont Plan" with innumerable small streams. In the rainy season water from these streams helps cultivate "Rabbi Crops".

The Potwar Plateau and the Salt Ranges


The Potwar Plateau and the Salt Ranges:

Alifye - Pakistan Study - The Potwar Plateau and the Salt Ranges

The Potowar Plateau and the SaltRange is located to the south of to mountainous north and lies between the Indus River on the west and Theitun River on the east. Its northern boundary found by the Kaala chitta Ranges and the Margalla Hills' and the southern boundary by the salt Ranges, Between the northern and the southern Ranges is located son Basin. It extends over an area of about 7000 square miles.
The Salt Range rises in the east near the western bank of Jhelum River in the Tilla and Bakrialaa Ridges. It comprises Parallel ranges of low, flat topped hills enclosing small intermontane valleys, basin plains, plateaus and a number of saline lakes. The Khabeki and Kallar Kahar are the t.vo largest lakes. To some extent the Salt Range runs northwards along the Jhelum River and then strikes northwest. At Kalabag it crosses the Indus. In the south — west, the range extends to Bannu and Dera Ismailk Khan. Its average altitude is 700 metres but it rises upto 1500 metres near Sakesar in Sargodha District.

The Plateau of Baluchistan

The Plateau of Baluchistan:

Alifye - Pakistan Study - The Plateau of Baluchistan

It is situated west, of the Sulaiman —Kirthar Mountains. Chaman and Ornach — Nal faults, divide it into two parts. These faults run from • Claman southward to the Arabian Sea.' height ranges between 600 to 900 metres. Bon hills run across the plateau from northeast, west. The Toba Kakhar and Chagimi Ranges in the north separate it from Afghanistan. Rainfall is very little and there is no big river in this region. However. many valuable minerals like Coal. Iron. Chromate. Copper and natural gas have been found in many parts of this region.

Physiography Of Pakistan

There are two main Physiographic provinces of Pakistan.
1.      The western thigh-Lands.
2.     The Indus Plaines
Western Highlands: 
It extends from the Makran coast in the south to the Pair Plateau m the north covering most of Baluchistan. NWFP, the Northern Area and Part of the Punjab. It can be divided into following physiographic divisions Mount.
Mountains North: 
It covers the northern part of Pakistan. It has the following important mountain ranges.
1.       The Himalayas.
2.       The Karakoram.
3.       The Hindu Kush
i.                     The Himalayas:
Alifye - Pakistan Study - Physiography Of Pakistan - Himalayas
The Himalayas can be divided as under.
a) The sub- Himalayas or the Siwaliks. It extends over southern part of Hazara and Murree and includes the Hills of Rawalpindi and Pabbi. Their everagte height is 600 to 1200 metres.
b) The Lesser — Himalayas: They are situated in north Hazara and Murree. They are represented by the Pir-Panjal in Jammu & Kashmir. They rise to 1800 to 4600 metres The Great Himalayas: They ac., iocated north of the Lesser Himalayas. Their bights are more than 4600 metres. • They dominate Kohistan District.
The Karakoram range originate near the Pangong Lake and runs north of and parallel to the Himalayas. Their average height is 6100 metres. Dowdier Austin (K-2) the second highest Peak in the world (8610 metres) is located in the Karakoram.
Hindu Kush les in the north — east where the boarders of Pakistan, g stan, Russia and China meet. There it branches off from the Himalayas at the Pair.
These mountains take a southerly turn and guard the northern and northwestern boarders of Pakistan. They rise to snow heights and are coy erect Nvith a number of glaciers, Some of peaks rise to great heights like Noshaq (7. 369 metres/ 24. 376 feet) and Teich Mire (7, 690 metres / 25.230 feet).
The Hindu Kush mountains are crossed by a number of difficult passes. like Baraghil pass (3, 798 metres/ 12, 460 feet) in the north and Dorah. Shul. Shera. Slung and Shingara Passes in the west. All these passes connect Pakistan with Afghanistan. A number of ranges branch off south of the Hindu Kush and pass through Chitral_ Swat and Dir.
The safed Koh ranges have an east — west trend and rise to an average height of 36. 00 meters/ 12. 000 feet. They are commonly covered with snow.
Skeram, the highest peak rises to 4. 760 metres/ 15. 620 feet. The Safed Koh Ranges merge into the Kohat Hills .in the east. These hills are about 1.600 metres/ 5. 000 feet high. South of the .Safed Koh Ranges, are located the Waziristan Hills. These hills rise to 1.500 — 3.000 metres/ 5, 000 — 10. 000 feet.
The Sulaiman — Kirthar Mountains lie between Balochistan Plateau and the Indus Plains. These mountains belong to the Himalayan Oregon. The Sulaiman Mountain extends south from the Gomal River. On reaching the Marie — Bugti Hills, They turn northward and extend up to Quetta. Near Quetta they take a syntactical bend southward and merge into the Nagano Range. Further South they meet the Kirthar Mountains, which merge into Kohistan area of Sindh. The Kohistan area extends eastward up to the Indus River and southward up to the Arabian Sea. The Kirthar Mountains AE backed by the Central Brahui Range and the Pub Range. The Sulaiman Mountain rises to an average height of 600 meters! 2, 000 feet. Their height decreases southward.


Thursday, 26 October 2017

Pakistan NA4 Polling Unofficial Result

Alifye - Pakistan Election - NA4 Election
Vote reckoning is afoot in Peshawar's NA-4 by-election when polling came to AN finish at 5PM on weekday.

Polls opened within the body at 8AM with voters casting their ballots at 269 polling stations.
Thursday had been declared a vacation by the deputy commissioner for the convenience of voters.

This is conjointly the primary time that electronic option machines (EVMs) were tested in AN electoral exercise.

According to the committee of Asian nation (ECP), one hundred polling booths would be victimization the EVMs aboard the manual option method.

With posters, banners, and publicity adorning the constituency’s roadways and therefore the movement having finished 2 days previous, the by-election is gave the impression to be a litmus {test|acid-base indicator} test for the ruling Asian nation Tehreek-e-Insaf's (PTI) quality within the province, particularly in lightweight of next year’s general elections.
The male-to-female quantitative relation of registered voters is nearly 3:2.

Six political and eight freelance candidates ar vying for the MNA slot; they embody PTI’s Arbab emeer Ayub, Asad Gulzar — late incumbent Gulzar Khan’s son — for Asian nation People’s Party (PPP), Awami National Party’s (ANP) Khushdil Khan, Jamaat-e-Islami’s (JI) Wisal Farooq, Tehreek-e-Labaik’s Allama Shafiq Amini, and Asian nation Muslim League-Nawaz’s (PML-N) Nasir Khan Moosa Zai.

Apart from one,400 army personnel, around 4,500 police officers were stationed for security in and round the polling stations.

Wednesday, 25 October 2017

Geo-Political Important of Pakistan

Geo-Political Important of Pakistan: 

Alifye - Pakistan Study - Geo-Political Important ofPakistan
Pakistan occupies a unique position' in the world. It is situated at the head of the Arabia sea it flanks the entrance to the Oil-richen. Persian Gulf. It is neighbor of very important countries of the world like India and China. Pakistan provides an overland passage from Europe to Indian Ocean, the area in which international attention is being increasingly contoured. Throughout its history Pakistan has been of vital importance as a getaway or trade and passage. It has sea, land and air trade router in all directions. The distinctive characteristic of the land ofPakistan is also indicated by the Geo-Political importance of its position, which is not shared by any other part of the Sub-continent. It is so situated that in the geological conflicts of east and. West its position has become of great strategic importance- both the Western and Communist powers week to bring Pakistan in their sphere .of influence. Pakistan is an active member of very important regional organization like SAARC. ECO and D-8.

Tuesday, 24 October 2017

Location Of Pakistan

Location Of Pakistan:

Pakistan is situated in the NorthWest of the Indo-Pak. Subcontinent It lies between latitudes of 215° and 36.45° north and between the longitudes of 61° and 75.31° east Pakistan stretches over 1.600 kilometers north and south and about 885 kilometers broad east to west covering a total area of Pakistan.
Alifye - Pakistan Study - Location of Pakisatn

All India Muslim League, under the Presidentship of Muhammad All Jinnah.
Capital: Islamabad
Member of: UN, Commonwealth,
SAARC Continent: Asia
National Flower: Yasmin 


In the north of Pakistan. there is the people's Republic of China, In the northwest, Afghanistan's Vakhan corridor separates Pakistan from central Asian States. In the West Pakistan, have common borders with Afghanistan and Iran. A Chain of Arab Muslim countries extends from the Southwest of Iran to the West Coast of North Africa. On the southern side of Pakistan spreads the Aradiaxs Sea. In the east there lies Indian states of Punjab and Rajistan.
 

Delhi Resolution


Delhi Resolution (1946) 

Alifye - Pakistan Study - Dehli Resolution
The Pakistan Resolution was further clarified in a conversion of elected members of Muslim League under the presidentship of Quid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali at Delhi on April 9, 1946. This historical resolution is named as Delhi Resolution. The major text of this resolution is as under.
Whereas in this vast sub-continent of India a hundred million Muslims are the adherents of a faith which regulates every department of their life (educational, social, economic and political), where code is not confined merely to spiritual doctrines 'and tenets or rituals and ceremonies and which stand in sharp contrast to the exclusive nature of Hindu Dharma and Philosophy which has fostered and maintained for thousands of years a right Cast System resulting in the degradation of 60 million human beings to the position of untouchables, creation of unnatural Barnes between men and supreme position of social and economic inequalities on a large body of the people of this country, and which threaten to reduce Muslims, Christians and other minorities to the status of irredeemable helots, socially and economically.
Whereas the Hindu Cast System in a direct negation of nationalism, equality, democracy and all noble ideals that Islam stands for; whereas different historical buckhounds, traditions, cultures and social and economic order of the Hindus and Muslims have made impossible the evolution of a single Indian nation inspired by 'common social and economic order of the Hindus and Muslims have made nation inspired by common impossible the evolution aspirations and ideals and whereas after centuries they still remain two distinct major nations.
Whereas soon after the introduction by the British of the policy of setting up political institution in India on the lines of Western democracies based on majority rules which meant that the majority of One of setting up political its wilt on the majority of the Other nation or society could impose the Government of India Act, 1935 when the Muslims were subjected to opposite regime of Congress Government in the Hindu majority provinces under lion as was amply demonstrated during the two and a half years untold harassment and oppression as a result of which they convinced of the futility and ineffectiveness of the so-called safeguards provided in the Constitution and in the instrument of instructions to the Governors and were driven to the irresistible conclusion that in a united Indian Federation; if established the Muslims even in interests could never be adequately protected against the perpetual Hindu majority at the center: Whereas the Muslims are convinced with a view to save Muslims from the domination of the Hindus and in order to afford them full scope to develop themselves according to their genius, it is necessary to constitute a sovereign independent State comprising the Bengal and Assume in the North-East zone and the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province. Sind and Baluchistan in the North-West zone; This Convention of the Muslim League Legislators of India, Central and Provincial, after careful consideration hereby declares that the Muslim Nation will never submit to any constitution for a United India and will never participate in any single constitution-making machinery set up for the purpose, and that any formula devised by the British Government for transferring power from the British to the People of India, which does not conform to the following just and equitable principles calculated to maintain internal peace and tranquility, in the country will not contribute to the solution of the Indian problems:

  1. That the zones 'comprising Bengal and Assume in the North-East and the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind and Baluchistan are in a dominate majority, be constituted into sovereign independence some and that an unequivocal undertaking be given to implement and establish Pakistan without delay. 
  2. That two separate constitution bodies be set up by peoples of Pakistan and Hindustan for the purpose of framing of their respective constitutions. 
  3.  That the minorities in Pakistan and Hindustan be provided with safeguards on the lines of the All-India Muslim League Resolution passed on the 23rd March 1940, at Lahore. 
  4. That the acceptance of the Muslim League demand of Pakistan and its implementation without delay are the sine qua non or the Muslim League co-operation and participation in the formation of an interim Government at the Center. This Convention further emphatically declares that and attempt to impose a constitution on a united India basis or to force any interim arrangement at the Center contrary to the Muslim League demand will leave the Muslims no alternative but to resist such imposition by all possible means for their survival and national existence.

Lahore Resolution

Lahore Resolution

Alifye - Pakistan Study - Lahore Resolution

The major turn in Pakistan Movement took place in 1940 when the Historic "Lahore Resolution" (Pakistan Resolution) was passed. It was a landmark in the "Pakistan Movement". It was a landmark in the "Pakistan Movement". The text of the Resolution is as following.
Muslims came to India as conquerors, traders and preachers brought with them their own culture and civilization. The hundred million Muslims in India represent the largest compact body of Muslims population in any single part of the world. We are a Nation with our own distinctive culture and civilization. language and literature, art and architecture. names and nomenclature. value and proportion, legal laws and moral codes. customs and calendar. History and traditions, aptitude and ambitions. in short we have our distinctive outlook of life and on life. By all canons of international law we are a nation". 


Text of the Resolution.  While approving and endorsing the action taken by the Council and the Working Committee of the All-India Muslim League. as indicated in their resolutions dated the 27th of August, 17th and 18th September and 22nd of October, 1939.-and 3rd of February. 1940 on the constitutional issue. this Session of the All-India Muslim League emphatically reiterates that the scheme of federation embodied in the Government of India Act 1935, is totally unsuited to, and workable in the peculiar conditions of this country and is altogether unacceptable to Muslim India.

In further records it emphatically reiterates that while the declaration dated the 18th of October. 1939, made by the Viceroy on behalf of His Majesty's Government is reassuring in so far as it declares that the Policy and plan on which the Government of India Act, 1935, is based will be reconsidered in consultation with the various parties. Interest and communities in India, Muslims in India will not be satisfied whole constitutional plan is reconsidered de novo and that no revise plan would be acceptable to the Muslims unless it is framed their approval and consent.
Resolved that it is the considered view of this Session of this session of the Al India Muslim League that no constitutional plan would be workable in this country or acceptable to the Muslims unless it is designed on the demarcated into regions which should be constituted, with such territorial readjustments as may be necessary that the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in a majority as m the NorthWestern and Eastern Zones of India should be grouped to constitute "Independent States" in which the constituent units should be autonomous and sovereign. The adequate, effective and mandatory safeguards should be specific any provided in the constitution for minorities in these units in the regions for the protection of their religious, cultural economic, ethical, administrative and other rights and interests in consultation with pool them and in other parts of India where the Muslims are in a majority adequate, effective and mandatory safeguards shall, be specifically provided in the constitution for them and other minorities for the protection of their religious, cultural, economic , political, administrative ^and other rights and interests in consultation with them. This Session further authorizes the Working Committee to one a scheme of constitution in accordance with these basic principles providing for the assumption finally by the respective regions of all powers such as defence, external affairs, communications, customs and such other matters as may be necessary.
 

Saturday, 21 October 2017

Creation Of Pakistan

  • Pakistan came into existence on 14 August 1947. It was the cultivation of the struggle that started in 1857 to achieve freedom from British domination over the Indo — Pak subcontinent: The British came to India as traders. The East India Company, founded by the merchants of London started trade with India and after the Battle of Palassey and Buxar the company became a territorial power in India. The British crown took over the administration of .the possessions in India by overthrowing the Muslims, who had ruled the subcontinent for 650 years. Before the Muslims theHindus dominated the political scene. Still earlier the Dravidian's and the aboriginal tribes were the masters. Therefore a glimpse into the history of the sub continent seems necessary in order to understand the creation of Pakistan. 
    Alifye - Pakistan - Creation of Pakistan
  • At the time of its creation it consisted of two wings i.e. West Pakistan andEast Pakistan. Both these wings,were 1600 kilometers away from each other and Indian Territory lay between the two wings. Indeed it looked strange that the two wings physically 1600 kilometers away from each other, with out any common frontier, having different languages, literature and rance should be united into a federation. Yet Islam the Common religion and common political heritage kept the two wings united for a quarter of a county. However in December 1971, the eastern wing fell victim to the international conspiracy and in,. Aggression. As a result. it became independent sovereign state of Bangladesh. So the present state of Pakistan comprised four Provisions, Punjab,Sindh, NWFP and Baluchistan.

Sikhism

Alifye - Religions - Sikhism

  • It is the synthesis of the basic tenets of Hinduism andIslam - the unity of which was the main object of its founder Guru Nankanaji, Gum Nanak preached belief in one God and condemned rituals and cast system. He emphasised the necessity of worshiping God through love. His teachings were compiled in 17th century and were called Adi Granth. Guru GobindSingh was the tenth and the last Guru, He instituted the institution of
The sacred places for Sikhs are Amritsar, (India), Nankana Sahib (Pakistan), Anandpur Sahib (india). Their Holy book is called Granth Sahib

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